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Since the First Crusade of 1095, crusaders attacked, despoiled and killed Jews or forced them to convert to Christianity. There is a tendency to describe violence against Jews as a fringe element of crusading carried out by overenthusiastic popular crusaders who misunderstood papal directives and had to be reined in by members of the Church hierarchy. Presenting a case study of the mid-1230s, this paper questions some of the received views about the papacy’s attitude towards crusader violence against Jews.


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